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Un géographe français sur les traces de La Fayette aux Etats-Unis

Identifier, cartographier et marquer de bornes les 8 000 kilomètres de la tournée d’adieu du marquis de La Fayette aux Etats-Unis. C’est l’objectif d’un jeune Français épris d’histoire et de géographie. Son projet a déjà reçu le support d’Emmanuel Macron et de la Maison Blanche et le Sénat du New Hampshire examinera ce jeudi son initiative.

Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, est une rock star aux Etats-Unis. Il n’a que 19 ans lorsqu’il arrive en Caroline du Sud en 1777 avec une cargaison de fusils à destination des insurgés américains. Il sera aide de camp de George Washington, major général à la tête de l’armée continentale et participera au siège de Yorktown en 1781. Un fait d’arme qui vaudra à l’officier français le titre de citoyen d’honneur américain et le surnom de « héro des deux mondes ».

C’est cependant une tournée d’adieu qui est à l’origine du culte dont La Fayette fait encore l’objet aux Etats-Unis. Entre juillet 1824 et septembre 1825, le héros de la Guerre d’indépendance visite plus de 400 villes dans vingt-quatre Etats, un périple de 8 000 kilomètres qu’il effectue en diligence, en péniche et en bateau à vapeur. Ces treize mois constituent « un moment clé », explique Julien Icher, fondateur et directeur du projet The Lafayette Trail. « C’est à partir de ce moment-là qu’on célèbre le nom de La Fayette aux Etats-Unis. »

Partout où il s’arrête, le général La Fayette — comme il se fait alors appeler — est accueilli dans la liesse, escorté par les fanfares et les vétérans, célébré et glorifié. On vend des statuettes à son effigie, des chopes de bière ornées de son portrait et on rebaptise des villes en son honneur. Le marquis donnera son nom à une université, dix-sept comtés, trente-six villes et un nombre incalculable de rues, avenues, jardins publics, lycées et théâtres. La Grange, le nom de son château en région parisienne, est aussi devenu un toponyme courant aux Etats-Unis.

3 septembre 1824 : petit déjeuner chez le gouverneur

Julien Icher a croisé le chemin de La Fayette en 2017, à l’occasion d’un stage au consulat de France à Boston. Il termine alors un master de géographie et de système d’information géographique à l’Ecole normale supérieure. On lui confie la mission de cartographier l’itinéraire du marquis en Nouvelle-Angleterre. Pour la journée du 3 septembre 1824, par exemple, huit points sont identifiés : accueil par le notable Isaac Goodwin à Sterling (Massachusetts), petit déjeuner chez le gouverneur à Worcester, accueil par le capitaine Howe à Leicester et discours du révérend Joseph Muenschner à Rochdale, pause à la Rider Tavern à Charlton, réception à la Porter’s Stage-house de Sturbridge, nuit à l’auberge Springs House à Stafford Springs (Connecticut). Et ainsi de suite.

 

L’itinéraire de La Fayette entre Worcester (Massachusetts) et Hartford (Connecticut) les 3 et 4 septembre 1824.

Toutes les pauses du marquis ne sont pas aussi bien documentées. Une horloge atteste du passage de La Fayette à l’académie militaire de West Point, dans l’Etat de New York, mais rien ne prouve qu’il a bien bu dans le verre qui est exposé dans une maison de Branford dans le Connecticut. « Il est nécessaire d’attester du sérieux de chaque source », explique Julien Icher. « Les informations foisonnent. Presque tous les jours, je découvre un document qui mentionne le passage de La Fayette dans telle ou telle ville, parfois un particulier m’informe qu’il possède des effets personnels de La Fayette. Je me déplace pour vérifier. »

Une entreprise à temps plein

L’historien de 25 ans, résident du New Hampshire depuis 2018, estime qu’il a déjà parcouru 24 000 kilomètres sur la piste de La Fayette. A mesure qu’elles sont authentifiées, les étapes du voyage apparaîtront en ligne sur une carte interactive. Le projet de stage est devenu une entreprise à temps plein, financée par l’agence Business France et une bourse de la Richard Lounsbery Foundation et des American Friends of Lafayette. Les recherches englobent désormais les vingt-quatre Etats visités par La Fayette, du Maine à la Louisiane et de la Géorgie au Missouri. Dans chaque Etat, Julien Icher plaide pour que l’itinéraire de La Fayette soit officiellement reconnu et identifié à l’aide de panneaux d’information. Le Congrès du Massachusetts a approuvé l’initiative en septembre 2018 et le Sénat du New Hampshire examinera une proposition de loi ce jeudi.

Le natif de Carcassonne compte achever sa mission avant 2024 et le bicentenaire de la tournée de La Fayette. Son projet a déjà reçu le support d’Emmanuel Macron — Julien Icher faisait partie de la délégation qui a accompagné le président lors de sa visite d’Etat à Washington D.C. en avril 2018 — et du gouvernement américain — il a discuté de l’idée d’une Route La Fayette nationale avec les représentants du National Park Service. Il planche également sur un livre en français et en anglais, récit de son expérience sur les traces de La Fayette aux Etats-Unis et une lecture historique de cette tournée d’adieu et de son influence sur le pays. Et après ? « C’est important de forger cette relation franco-américaine et de la transmettre aux futures générations. Des programmes d’interprétation du patrimoine à destination des élèves, des professeurs et autres passionnés d’histoire seront bientôt disponibles via une application mobile. »

  • This is very exciting! I’m a francophone from Maine and a fan and student of the Marquis. My home town is Biddeford, and I discovered where the Marquis spent 2 nights there. The house still stands and is the offices of Derring Lumber. There was a plaque outside a church in Biddeford, but sadly is was since torn down, but I would love to learn more!

    • For more information about Lafayette visit: http://www.marquisdelafayette-memoryspaces.org (It’s certainly the “Travel guide” of Julien Icher!)

      The Marquis De La Fayette is known universally as the « Hero of Two Worlds » and as one of the “Founding Fathers of the Modern Democracy” for his decisive role during the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and during the French Revolution (1789-1799). Two historic events that would give rise to the United States of America and the French Republic and globally to the modern democracy on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity between individuals and peoples. An ideology inspired by the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. Today his legacy goes beyond the bond of friendship between France and the United States of America and belongs to all humanity.

      Gérard Charpentier, Ph.D.
      Grand-Cross – Commander Ordre Lafayette
      President Ordre Lafayette Order America Corp USA and Association Ordre Lafayette Canada
      gc@gerardcharpentier.com
      (514) 942-6264
      (866) 872-3880

  • Julien, Hi.
    If you come to Missouri, give me a call. Last year we visited Carcassonne.
    Pete Connors
    (816) 590-6821

  • « [A] shipment of rifles »? I don’t mean to be picky but I believe the device which propelled bullets in 1777 was actually called a musket. Just saying.

    • Rifles were available–state of the art technology. The majority of the armies and civilians probably had muskets, but the guns were available and used.

  • A great project!! Thanks so much for undertaking this. From a high school French teacher in Arizona with French heritage dating at least to the French Revolution. My paternal ancestors were on the side of the Revolution in France, and my maternal ancestors fought in the American Revolution.

  • Although the majority of military flintlock long arms in those days were indeed smoothbore muskets, as they could be loaded faster for getting off volleys quicker, our frontiersmen at Kings’s Mountain defeated the British with their rifles — barrels grooved for accuracy for hunting. And yet true rifled weapons were beginning to appear on the scene for military purposes and Rev. War British officer Ferguson invented one of those that met with some success.
    Bienvenue, Julien.

  • York, Pennsylvania, was well visited by Lafayette. I’m a teacher here and we would gladly welcome a visit.

  • I have a book published by my great uncle, J. Alexis Shtiver, entitled “Lafayette in Harford County. » He stayed at the Shriver homestead in Olney, MD (Harford County).

    • For those who may be interested in this book, there are 3 samples of the original edition available on Abebooks.com

  • I was delighted to see this! I did a Junior Year Abroad in Aix-en-Provence in 1963-64 and met and married a French Lady. I later practiced law (International Arbitration) for five years in Paris (1987-1991). The Marquis de Lafayette has always been my favorite person (aside from Washington, of course) in our Revolutionary War, in which my ancestors fought. They knew both Washington and Lafayette, having joined Washington in the New York siege and all the way through Yorktown.

    Now one of my sons lives in Auvergne with his family and only approximately 30 kilometers from the place where Lafayette grew up, which I have visited several times. For years I thought of him every day as my law office in Washington, DC was near Lafayette Park, in front of the White House, which I passed each day. One year, at Washington’s Birthnight Ball at Mount Vernon on February 22 another gentleman dressed as and played Washington while I dressed as and played Lafayette.

    What great memories you bring back.

    When you come to Washington, look me up.

    David J. Taylor
    (202) 957-0904
    taylor.davidj@gmail.com

  • There is a house that Lafayette slept in which is located in Ringoes, New Jersey (Hunterdon County), doesn’t show up on the trail but it is a historic house with signage. It is called the Landis House, built in 1750 by Henry Landis. Lafayette stayed there as a patient of Dr. Gershom Craven. Perhaps this should be added too!

  • Louis XV a été lamentable en perdant quasiment tout l’empire français aux mains de l’Angleterre. Louis XVI n’est pas honoré à sa juste valeur puisque le seul fait qu’il a décidé d’aider lourdement la nouvelle république américaine à briser les liens avec la mère-patrie pèse encore dans les liens d’amitié entre les 2 républiques. La Fayette a très honorablement accompli la mission que Louis XVI lui avait confié.

  • What a wonderful quest! We love the Northeast as well as the history of Marquis Lafayette. We will be interested to hear more! All the best!

  • Lafayette was a friend of my 5th grand uncle, in Tiverton, RI. They were friends till their deaths.

  • La ville de Warrenton, VA dans le comte de Fauquier a celebre le 175 anniversaire de la visite de Lafayette et organise des activites culturelles. Des eleves de francais et d’histoire y ont participe avec l’aide des ecoles et du gouvernement local. Nous avons eu un echange avec les ecoles de Chavaniac en France et avec le lycee Lafayette de Brioude. Contactez-moi si vous avez besoin de details.

  • Walt Whitman writes about experiencing, at seven years old, Lafayette’s visit to Brooklyn, ca. 1825, with detailed descriptions of the streets/places visited. (It’s in one of his Brooklynania columns, collected in a book called Walt Whitman’s New York.)

  • Auguste Levasseur, secrétaire de Lafayette qui l’accompagna durant son dernier voyage en 1824 et 1825, publia un journal de cette visite. Il y a plusieurs années, lorsque j’habitais le Delaware, j’avais assisté à une présentation à l’Alliance Française de Wilmington du livre traduisant ce journal par Alan R. Hoffman, alors résidant au New Hampshire. Cette traduction terminée en 2006 avait été un labeur de 3 années par ce traducteur. J’ai encore ce livre « Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825 ». Il avait été publié par Lafayette Press à Manchester. Comme Julien Icher a résidé au New Hampshire, il le connaît sans doute. Je le signale au cas où d’autres personnes seraient intéressées à la lire.

      • Mr. Petit,
        I saw your posts on the Lafayette Trail project. I am not sure of your background, but you may recommend some books for me. My great-uncle was the youngest American pilot in WWI. He served in the AEF in the 96th Bombardment Squadron, and eventually was forced down well inside German lines and was captured. Could you recommend any books covering the American aviation units? I’m sorry, they must be in English.
        TY

  • Moi-même passionnée d’histoire, je suis fascinée par votre entreprise. J’aurais été ravie d’en faire partie. Belle aventure !!

  • Please let me know if you would be in the Atlanta, Georgia, area. I live in Fayetteville, Georgia, and am the immediate past president of the Marquis de Lafayette Chapter Georgia Society Sons of the American Revolution. My French ancestor Lt. Armable Boileau joined the Second Canadian Regiment during the American invasion of Quebec. His unit served twice under the command of General LaFayette, Vermont in 1779 and at Yorktown.

  • In Cheraw, South Carolina, there is a home known as the Lafayette House because the Marquis lodged there.. It is still owned by descendants of the original family. I would be fascinated to see this on your historical tour.

  • Bonjour Julien,
    I’m still pursuing as much history of Lafayette and his integral part of the Revolutionary War. Congratulations on the successful legislative effort on MA. I know the original start of the Lafayette Trail in MA began in Hinsdale. Were you able to find any connection to his visit there, or why the former origin of the trail was designated there?

  • C’est avec beaucoup d’emotion que j’ai lu tous les commentaires des lecteurs et cela m’a mis du baume au coeur…
    Claude au Texas

  • It may of course be just a family legend, but I grew up being told that Lafayette spent the night at the Sumner household on the town green in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. I’m curious how well documented his lodgings were around Worcester.

  • The place where he was injured in the leg at the Battle of Brandywine is now a cemetery, I have a relative buried there. America loves Lafayette–best of luck to you!

  • I have the invitation to the Lafayette Ball in Philadelphia at which my great-great-grandparents, Susan Dillwyn Physick and then Lieutenant David Conner, met.

  • A great concept. If you need any pre-work, I live 2 miles from Lafayette’s quarters in Chadds Ford, PA, don’t hesitate to ask. You may find Rex Passion’s « The Lost Sketchbooks » interesting and applicable. The book combines a WWI combat engineer and Chester County artist’s almost daily sketching with modern Google Earth plots.

  • Julien Icher présentera son expérience à une conférence publique le 7 avril à l’ambassade de France à Washington, DC. Si vous êtes dans la région, n’hésitez pas à venir, la conférence est gratuite ! L’inscription est obligatoire, vous pouvez vous enregistrer en utilisant le lien ci-dessous :
    https://lafayette-89.eventbrite.com

  • Not certain of the date, I believe it was in 1974, my late husband, Pierre François, was asked to personify the Marquis de La Fayette. The event was to mark an anniversary of the Marquis’ triumphant tour of the first 13 colonies in 1824. It was held on the grounds of Clermont, the estate of Robert Livingston, who had served as Minister to France during Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, 1801-1804. Upon our arrival, my husband was led to a white horse drawn carriage and seated next to Mrs. Montgomery, widow of General Montgomery, killed at the battle of Quebec. Present also was a descendent of Robert Fulton, inventor of the first steamboat. In recognition of then Chancellor Livingston’s financing of this endeavor, Fulton named the steamboat the Clermont, the beautiful property that overlooks the Hudson and the Catskill Mountains to the west. Farther south stands the Beekman Arms in Rhinebeck, New York, where George Washington and the Marquis would have stayed overnight. The hotel is recognized as the oldest tavern in the United States.

  • On a trip to France in 1992, my late husband, Pierre François and I traveled to the boyhood home of the Marquis, le Château de Chavagnac, on July 4th. Although it was almost closing time, Pierre had the pleasure of playing both National Anthems of the United States and France. It was a perfect finale to our national holiday because both flags fly in Chavagnac.

  • The plaque that is questioned on the Jefferson Street Baptist Church in Biddeford, Maine, honoring the visit by Lafayette can be seen at the following link of the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution: http://www.mainedar.org/chapter/rebeccaemery/OurMarkers.htm (Scroll down to the First Baptist Church). According to the website, the marker was placed on the building by the Rebecca Emery Chapter of the DAR on May 6, 1917, as part of the Biddeford Tercentenary Celebration. Marquis De Lafayette worshiped in this building on his visit to Biddeford, Maine, on June 26, 1825, which was before it was moved from its original Crescent Street location. I had the sad pleasure of walking inside the church just before it was torn down and the site is now a parking lot.

  • If you get to Fayetteville, Arkansas, let us know. We have a General Lafayette Chapter of the Arkansas Society of the National Society of the Sons of the Revolution. We would love to hear you speak about General Lafayette!

  • Hello, I find this very interesting. I believe Lafayette visited members of my family in Stockton/Prallsville, New Jersey. My great, great, great grandfather, William Livingston Prall, was Secretary of the New Jersey Senate at certain period and his father John Prall Jr. was married to Amelia Coryell (of Coryell’s Ferry, NJ and PA – now known as the towns of Lambertville, NJ and New Hope, PA). The Coryells were principal to the planning and execution of George Washington’s Christmas Night crossing of the Delaware River and John Prall Jr. is noted as being overseer of the crossing. I would be interested in speaking with you on the topic. You may contact me for more information and discussion.
    Regards,
    Pieter D. Prall

  • Incidentally, my family were Huguenot who migrated to America arriving at Kingston, NY in 1658. Initial paternal ancestor, Arendt Jansen Van Naerden Prael. We have deduced that he probably dwelled at or may have been born at Naerden Fortress in the Netherlands. The family reputedly came from Flanders and fled through the Netherlands to America, fleeing the inquisition. I am named after Aarendt’s son Pieter, whom was named after his mother (or grandmother) Maria Pieters.

  • More correctly, I should have said that Lafatyette stayed at our family house in Prallsville, NJ which is now known as Stockton, NJ.

  • Our farm in Spotsylvania, Virginia, contains two historic houses, one of which dates to 1763 and is on or near the site through which Lafayette passed. I would love to know more. Please visit us!

  • Hello Julien Icher: I’m the host of a radio show, ‘Greenwich, A Town For All Seasons’ that broadcasts every other Wednesday morning Eastern Time on Radio 1490 WGCH/WGCH.com in Greenwich, Connecticut. I would like to feature a phone-based interview with you about your project. Lafayette visited Greenwich during his tour of the United States. In particular he stopped by this home. Please contact me at GreenwichATownForAllSeasons@gmail.com at your earliest convenience.

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